In an area devastated by deforestation, an 18-month-old toddler from the nearest settlement, Meliandou in Guinea, was seen playing around a fallen tree swarming with bats. The child then contracted a mysterious illness, which spread to many who came in contact. After it had already killed 30 people, the illness was identified as Ebola. Comprehensive studies have since connected 25 of the 27 Ebola outbreaks in Africa, like the 2014 outbreak that originated in Guinea, to regions with intense deforestation. Scientists set out to find the connecting links between deforestation and the then-disparate phenomenon of emerging diseases. Through years of collaborative efforts, they were able to show that human-induced damages inflicted on nature are an important driver of human diseases emerging from the wild.
Several animals, including human beings, are hosts to a myriad of viruses that do not cause any disease and remain in their latent state within the host. This harmony is shaped by millions of years of evolution that enable the co-existence of the virus and their host. Nevertheless, evolution also allows these viruses to leap from their original host into newer hosts with a few simple changes in their genetic material, without any guarantee that the virus will remain latent in the new hosts. The United Nations reports that 75% of the emerging diseases have their origins in other animal species. Viruses like Ebola, SARS, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2 originated from mammals like wild bats and subsequently jumped to humans through animal-human contact. The pandemics resulting from these disease outbreaks resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives and billions of dollars to the global economy. It is imperative to understand the routes through which human activities are triggering these epidemics.
Human encroachment on forest land is often the first step to expanding urban settlements. Cleared forests leave the resident animals homeless, forcing them to travel to nearby locations to settle. This migration may bring them, and the viruses they host, in close proximity to humans in the neighbouring settlements. As with the toddler in Guinea, increased contact with wild animals increases the odds of transmitting diseases from animals to humans, which then triggers human-to-human transmission.
In a Scientific Reports article published in October 2017, scientists showed outbreaks of Ebola around the rainforest were associated with forest loss within the preceding two years. Using a combination of geographical data and modelling, researchers found a link between deforestation and Ebola outbreaks, showing significant correlation between these events.
The association between deforestation and disease incidence was not just limited to Ebola. In 1997, hundreds of thousands of square-kilometres of land were burnt down in Indonesia to make way for agriculture. The remaining trees in the rainforest area could not produce sufficient fruit for the fruit bat population. Consequently, the fruit bats, which were hosts to potentially deadly viruses, had to fly to nearby locations in search of food. As soon as they settled on the Malaysian orchards nearby, the pigs and local farmers started falling ill. This was one of the first reported cases of the Nipah virus.
Similarly, work published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences demonstrated an association of malaria transmission with deforestation across the Amazon basin. They report an annual 10% increase in forest loss could have resulted in the 3.3% rise in malaria cases between 2003 and 2015.
The intimate and intricate relationship between human activities like deforestation and the spillover of diseases from the wild is being appreciated now more than ever before. Global alliances like EcoHealth Alliance and Planetary Health Alliance are now in action deciphering the connections between human and environmental health. Given the high cost of lives and economic burden due to unprecedented pandemic events, the efforts to identify global hotspots of emerging diseases from the wild have been drastically accelerated. [Continue reading…]